Pathzero Intl. MRIO emissions

This article references the work completed to create the Pathzero Intl. MRIO emissions multipliers used in the Pathzero platform.

This Pathzero multi-region input-output (MRIO) emissions multiplier data set distinguished 54 economic sectors in 52 regions, covering the entire world economy, and four years from 2015 to 2018. This data set was created in the Global MRIO Virtual Laboratory (Lenzen et al. 2017), using the AISHA construction pipeline (Geschke et al. 2011) and the KRAS constrained optimisation algorithm (Lenzen et al. 2009). The primary data used in the compilation process are the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EC 2021), official National Accounts (UNSD 2020a), national input-output tables (OECD 2018), international trade data (UNSD 2020c; b), global commodity production data (FAO 2020c; a; b; UNIDO 2020b; a) and global GDP estimates (World Bank 2019).


For further information on Virtual Laboratories see Geschke and Hadjikakou 2017.

For classical textbooks on multi-region input-output (MRIO) analysis and multipliers see Isard 1951; Leontief 1953; Leontief and Strout 1963; Miller and Blair 2010.

For further information on multi-region input-output (MRIO) databases see Murray and Lenzen 2013; Tukker and Dietzenbacher 2013.

For further information on carbon multipliers and footprints see Wiedmann and Minx 2008; Minx et al. 2009; Wiedmann 2009.




EC (2021) Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), release version 5.0. Internet site, Bruxelles, Belgium, European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC).

FAO (2020a) FishStatJ - Fishery and Aquaculture Statistical Time Series. Fishery Statistical Collection, Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization

FAO (2020b) Global Aquaculture Production. Fishery Statistical Collection, Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization

FAO (2020c) Value of Agricultural Production. Internet site - data/QV, Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Geschke, A. and M. Hadjikakou (2017) Virtual laboratories and MRIO analysis – an introduction. Economic Systems Research 29, 143-157.

Geschke, A., D. Moran, K. Kanemoto and M. Lenzen (2011) AISHA : A tool for constructing time series and large environmental and Social Accounting Matrices using constrained optimisation. 19th International Input-Output Conference, paper.htm. Alexandria, USA.

Isard, W. (1951) Interregional and regional input-output analysis, a model of a space economy. Review of Economics and Statistics 33, 318-328.

Lenzen, M., B. Gallego and R. Wood (2009) Matrix balancing under conflicting information. Economic Systems Research 21, 23-44.

Lenzen, M., A. Geschke, M.D. Abd Rahman, Y. Xiao, J. Fry, R. Reyes, E. Dietzenbacher, S. Inomata, K. Kanemoto, B. Los, D. Moran, H. Schulte in den Bäumen, A. Tukker, T. Walmsley, T. Wiedmann, R. Wood and N. Yamano (2017) The Global MRIO Lab - charting the world economy. Economic Systems Research 29, 158-186.

Leontief, W. (1953) Interregional theory. In: W. Leontief, H.B. Chenery, P.G. Clark, J.S. Duesenberry, A.R. Ferguson, A.P. Grosse, R.N. Grosse, M. Holzman, W. Isard and H. Kistin (eds.) Studies in the Structure of the American Economy. New York, NY, USA, Oxford University Press, 93-115.

Leontief, W.W. and A.A. Strout (1963) Multiregional input-output analysis. In: T. Barna (ed.) Structural Interdependence and Economic Development. London, UK, Macmillan, 119-149.

Miller, R.E. and P.D. Blair (2010) Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, Prentice-Hall.

Minx, J., T. Wiedmann, R. Wood, G.P. Peters, M. Lenzen, A. Owen, K. Scott, J. Barrett, K. Hubacek, G. Baiocchi, A. Paul, E. Dawkins, J. Briggs, D. Guan, S. Suh and F. Ackerman (2009) Input-output analysis and carbon footprinting: An overview of applications. Economic Systems Research 21, 187-216.

Murray, J. and M. Lenzen (2013) The Sustainability Practitioner's Guide to Multi-Regional Input-Output Analysis. Champaign, USA, Common Ground.

OECD (2018) OECD Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) Tables. Internet site, Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Tukker, A. and E. Dietzenbacher (2013) Global multiregional input-output frameworks: An introduction and outlook. Economic Systems Research 25, 1-19.

UNIDO (2020a) Industrial Statistics Database at the 4-digit level of ISIC (INDSTAT4). Internet site, New York, USA, United Nations.

UNIDO (2020b) Mining and Utilities Statistics Database (MINSTAT). Internet site, New York, USA, United Nations.

UNSD (2020a) National Accounts Main Aggregates Database. Internet site, New York, USA, United Nations Statistics Division.

UNSD (2020b) UN comtrade - United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database. Internet site, New York, USA, United Nations Statistics Division, UNSD.

UNSD (2020c) UN ServiceTrade. Internet site, New York, USA, United Nations Statistics Division, UNSD.

Wiedmann, T. (2009) Carbon footprint and input-output analysis: an introduction. Economic Systems Research21, 175–186.

Wiedmann, T. and J. Minx (2008) A Definition of 'Carbon Footprint'. In: C.C. Pertsova (ed.) Ecological Economics Research Trends. Hauppauge NY, USA, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., also available as Research Report 07/01 from the Centre for Sustainability Accounting,, Volume 1, Chapter 1, 1-11.

World Bank (2019) Gross value added at basic prices (GVA) (current US$). Data, Washington, USA, World Bank.